If/when and zero vs. first connditional

We use conditionals when we want to talk about things that are true now or that may be true in the future. These conditionals usually begin with‘if’ (less certain) or ‘when’ (more certain). There are different forms of conditional, depending on what you want to say.

Zero Conditional

The simplest is called the zero conditional and we use it to talk about
something that is true now or is usually true. We make the zero conditional
this way: If/When + PRESENT TENSE, PRESENT TENSE.

For example:
If it is warm, I open my windows.
If I am waiting for someone, I look at my watch.
When my alarm goes off, I wake up.
When I am sitting on the sofa, the cat sits on my lap.

First Conditional

We also have the first conditional and it is used for things which may
be true in the future, but we are not certain of. We make the first
conditional this way: If + PRESENT TENSE, MODAL VERB + INFINITIVE
VERB.

For example:
If I have time, I will write an email to you.
If I see Bob, I will tell him you are looking for him.
If I drink more coffee, I could get a headache.

Glossary

true – pravda
form – forma
warm – teplo
watch – hodinky
alarm – budík
lap – klín
be certain of – být si jistý
headache – bolest hlavy

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